1.   overwork, economic deprivation and ill–health
2.   1880’s melbourne tailoresses strike
3.   and also …
4.   1885 the victorian lady teachers’ association
5.   1895 anti sweating leagues
6.   1895 “our opponents”  betrayal
7.   the public service act  betrayal

8.   1903 women in politics
9.   1904  victorian employers federation betrayal
10. 1907 the harvester decision  betrayal
11.1910-11 other pre-war actions
12. 1911 'the match girls' strikes
13. 1911 factories and shops acts  betrayal
14. 1912 justice (?) higgins  betrayal

15. 1912 equal pay for teachers betrayal
16. the women's political association supported the teachers
17. 1913 lady teachers’ association resolution
18. the clerks’ wages board determination 
20. 1914 teachers’ equal pay claim betrayal
21. 1914 war - 'the wicked waste of life'  betrayal

22. 1915 food prices up, unemployment, poverty
23. 1915 wpa (women’s political association) women's labour bureau
24. victorian association of benevolent societies betrayal
25. response from the women’s political ass.n
26. women’s labour bureau defunded  betrayal
27. 1915 agitating and lobbying - unemployed women
28. not only women

29. australian women’s national league (awnl) opposed the wpa betrayal
30. 1915 the women's rural co-operative
31. the international congress of women
32. prime minister's visit to london  betrayal
33. declining birthrate blamed on women  betrayal
34. 1915 cost of living demonstrations
35. 1915 unemployment and the women's labour councils
36. equal pay provision broken down betrayal

37. nursing in war
38. salaries cut  betrayal
39. the commonwealth clothing factory  betrayal
40. 1917 'we want work adjourn the house'
41. more anti feminist betrayal
42. peace has come betrayal


43. living standards falling
44. 1918 returned nurses' conditions betrayal
45. 1916-18 muriel (heagney) had got a job
46. 1919 the basic wage betrayal
47. a “where is the bachelor tax”? betrayal
48. 1925–6 women’s activism
49. shall not by sex or marriage

50. 1926 the clothing trade union claims
51. unemployment in the depression
52. 1930 the heagney-riley report on unemployed women
53. 1930 unemployed girls' relief movement
54. the communist party of australia  betrayal?
55. 1932 nationalist party  betrayal
56. miss heagney ceases work?  betrayal

57. social insecurity – wages cuts betrayal
58. 1930-1933 overwork, economic deprivation and ill-health again
59. the human right to decide for herself  betrayal
60. 1935 they worked for equal pay
61. 1937 they formed the council of action for equal pay (caep)
62. teachers’ conditions betrayal
63. recognising the service … and that men share the housework

64. wages for wives paid by husbands betrayal
65. 1941 muriel heagney's six point policy
66. 1941 women's cheap labour exploited 
67. 1941 1942 the australian women's land army (awla)
68. 1943 female rates betrayal
69. women's place in post-war reconstruction?
70. 1953 proposed wage reductions for women betrayal
71. equal pay rallies in 1955, and 1957
72. (premier?) bolte's response  betrayal
73. kath williams came out fighting


74. it all began – zelda d’aprano
75. 1968 equal basics wage case
76. 1969 equal pay case betrayal
77. the commonwealth government chain-up
78. police response
79. arbitration commission chain up
80. calling out slogans, waving banners
81. 1970 we earn 75%, we pay 75% the trams

82. what is women’s liberation?
83. woman is moving
84. background to equal pay demands
85. 1972 equal pay for work of equal value
86. 1972 childcare
87. 1956-75 women's struggle to become tram drivers in Melbourne
88. 1974 tramway women's struggle  betrayal
89. 1974 taking men's jobs? (again) minimum wage case

90. women who work in shops protest 91. women picket everhot
92. women’s action alliance et al betrayal 
93. “not wishing to help asio further …”
94. religion – catholic action - national civic council betrayal
95. women members of national civic council betrayal
96. 1974 waa “homemaker's allowance” betrayal
97. i am not a housewife
98. social welfare cuts betrayal
99. whose right to choose?
100. beyond equality

1919 the zurich women’s international conference
APPENDIX 2 join the council for women in war work
APPENDIX 3 the 1946 australian women’s charter
1978 waa women's report to national civic council melbourne
APPENDIX 5 the women’s liberation manifesto

Who says who we are as women?

Who says what is in our interest?

Patriarchy; religion; industry – they use us for their own purposes.

They did in the past. They do now, in 2012.

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BETRAYAL women’s paid work 1874-1974

Compiled by Geraldine Robertson
Published by Women's Web stories actions http://www.womensweb.com.au

It is in three sections to celebrate three remarkable women.


The times of Vida Goldstein (1869-1949)

Famous suffragist plus ... She picked up and carried forward some of the work of early Australian feminists, including her mother - Isabella Goldstein (1840-1916). She died in obscurity but some of her work was continued by Muriel Heagney.


The times of Muriel Heagney (1885-1974)

Famous unionist plus ... She picked up and carried forward some of the work of Vida Goldstein. She died in obscurity and poverty but some of her work was continued by Zelda D’Aprano.


The times of Zelda D’Aprano (1928-

Famous women's liberationist plus ... She picked up and carried forward some of the work of Vida Goldstein and Muriel Heagney. She is still working. Her book Zelda is available at the New International Bookshop.

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I compiled this collection of quotes -100 from 100 years - for those who embrace the women’s movement now and in the future.And with particular thanks to the women who helped me with this booklet/website:
Elida; Esme; Iman; Margaret; Ohmar; Rachel and Zelda.

I chose these stories on the documentation that was available, not on political grounds. Stories and works of feminist women living today are documented in Women’s Web stories actions www.womensweb.com.au. I wondered what connected these women, so I started looking.

I was astounded.

"Why wasn't I told, why wasn't I told?" kept going through my head as I paced the floor, furious.

"Why didn't I know that all this is part of a precious tradition, coming from the past and moving into the future?" And what is worse, the continuity and hope of the women’s movement had been apparently lost before.

In the 1920’s Alice Henry said of young women: “They don’t seem to burn with causes and have high emotional adventure.”

Stella (Miles) Franklin concurred: “There is nothing for them but to conform and imitate and they are anaemic specimens. No rebellion, no venturesomeness.”

In hindsight we can see they were mistaken. Young women did embrace the women’s movement, carrying it forward and standing firm in increasingly difficult times. The stories in this booklet/website are evidence of that.

These accounts give me hope. I trust they will touch you, too.


These quotes are nearly all taken from Women Working Together suffrage and onwards

A few are taken from Women's Web stories actions

And some other websites that are sourced within the text.

The booklet is published by Women’s Web stories actions
http://www.womensweb.com.au/ June 2012

With the support of the Clifton Hill/North Fitzroy Community Bank® Branch of Bendigo Bank.

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry
Title:              Betrayal : women's paid work 1874-1974 a story of betrayals      
                      / compiled by Geraldine Robertson.
ISBN:             9780987327406 (pbk.)

Subjects:        Women--Employment--Victoria--History.
                       Pay equity--Victoria--History.
                       Equal pay for equal work--Victoria--History.
                       Sex discrimination in employment--Victoria.

Dewey Number:       331.215309945

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