A. EARLY DAYS - THE TIMES OF VIDA GOLDSTEIN

1.   overwork, economic deprivation and ill–health
2.   1880’s melbourne tailoresses strike
3.   and also …
4.   1885 the victorian lady teachers’ association
5.   1895 anti sweating leagues
6.   1895 “our opponents”  betrayal
7.   the public service act  betrayal


8.   1903 women in politics
9.   1904  victorian employers federation betrayal
10. 1907 the harvester decision  betrayal
11.1910-11 other pre-war actions
12. 1911 'the match girls' strikes
13. 1911 factories and shops acts  betrayal
14. 1912 justice (?) higgins  betrayal


15. 1912 equal pay for teachers betrayal
16. the women's political association supported the teachers
17. 1913 lady teachers’ association resolution
18. the clerks’ wages board determination 
20. 1914 teachers’ equal pay claim betrayal
21. 1914 war - 'the wicked waste of life'  betrayal


22. 1915 food prices up, unemployment, poverty
23. 1915 wpa (women’s political association) women's labour bureau
24. victorian association of benevolent societies betrayal
25. response from the women’s political ass.n
26. women’s labour bureau defunded  betrayal
27. 1915 agitating and lobbying - unemployed women
28. not only women


29. australian women’s national league (awnl) opposed the wpa betrayal
30. 1915 the women's rural co-operative
31. the international congress of women
32. prime minister's visit to london  betrayal
33. declining birthrate blamed on women  betrayal
34. 1915 cost of living demonstrations
35. 1915 unemployment and the women's labour councils
36. equal pay provision broken down betrayal


37. nursing in war
38. salaries cut  betrayal
39. the commonwealth clothing factory  betrayal
40. 1917 'we want work adjourn the house'
41. more anti feminist betrayal
42. peace has come betrayal


B. RECOVERING FROM WAR - THE TIMES OF MURIEL HEAGNEY


43. living standards falling
44. 1918 returned nurses' conditions betrayal
45. 1916-18 muriel (heagney) had got a job
46. 1919 the basic wage betrayal
47. a “where is the bachelor tax”? betrayal
48. 1925–6 women’s activism
49. shall not by sex or marriage


50. 1926 the clothing trade union claims
51. unemployment in the depression
52. 1930 the heagney-riley report on unemployed women
53. 1930 unemployed girls' relief movement
54. the communist party of australia  betrayal?
55. 1932 nationalist party  betrayal
56. miss heagney ceases work?  betrayal


57. social insecurity – wages cuts betrayal
58. 1930-1933 overwork, economic deprivation and ill-health again
59. the human right to decide for herself  betrayal
60. 1935 they worked for equal pay
61. 1937 they formed the council of action for equal pay (caep)
62. teachers’ conditions betrayal
63. recognising the service … and that men share the housework


64. wages for wives paid by husbands betrayal
65. 1941 muriel heagney's six point policy
66. 1941 women's cheap labour exploited 
67. 1941 1942 the australian women's land army (awla)
68. 1943 female rates betrayal
69. women's place in post-war reconstruction?
70. 1953 proposed wage reductions for women betrayal
71. equal pay rallies in 1955, and 1957
72. (premier?) bolte's response  betrayal
73. kath williams came out fighting


C. WOMEN’S LIBERATION – THE TIMES OF ZELDA D’APRANO

74. it all began – zelda d’aprano
75. 1968 equal basics wage case
76. 1969 equal pay case betrayal
77. the commonwealth government chain-up
78. police response
79. arbitration commission chain up
80. calling out slogans, waving banners
81. 1970 we earn 75%, we pay 75% the trams

82. what is women’s liberation?
83. woman is moving
84. background to equal pay demands
85. 1972 equal pay for work of equal value
86. 1972 childcare
87. 1956-75 women's struggle to become tram drivers in Melbourne
88. 1974 tramway women's struggle  betrayal
89. 1974 taking men's jobs? (again) minimum wage case


90. women who work in shops protest 91. women picket everhot
92. women’s action alliance et al betrayal 
93. “not wishing to help asio further …”
94. religion – catholic action - national civic council betrayal
95. women members of national civic council betrayal
96. 1974 waa “homemaker's allowance” betrayal
97. i am not a housewife
98. social welfare cuts betrayal
99. whose right to choose?
100. beyond equality


APPENDIX 1
1919 the zurich women’s international conference
APPENDIX 2 join the council for women in war work
APPENDIX 3 the 1946 australian women’s charter
APPENDIX 4
1978 waa women's report to national civic council melbourne
APPENDIX 5 the women’s liberation manifesto

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Page 9 B. RECOVERING FROM WAR, MORE WAR, MORE RECOVERING -
THE TIMES OF MURIEL HEAGNEY
57-63 on this page

57. SOCIAL INSECURITY – WAGES CUTS BETRAYAL

Sandra Bloodworth:
Also, Victoria's Minister for Sustenance declared in 1932 that:
"while domestic work was available at any wage, under any conditions, anywhere in the State, jobless women would be denied public assistance!"

And: In August Victorian employers cut wages by 15%. This was in addition to the 10% across-the-board cut for all workers two years previously.

Women in Australia, working class history ed Sandra Bloodworth and Tom O'Lincoln Interventions Melbourne 1998

58. 1930-1933 OVERWORK, ECONOMIC DEPRIVATION AND ILL-HEALTH AGAIN

Janet McCalman:
At that time in the Women's Hospital in Melbourne Between 1930 and 1933 inclusive, the hospital treated 4424 women for abortion, of whom a massive 1069 were septic ... No-one who ever saw a woman die of Cl. welchii infection ever forgot the horror of it ... The Women's was the place where 'all the abortions went', where 'they all died from gangrene'. The smell of the septic ward was notorious: all public hospitals had stinking gangrene wards, but only the Women's was talked about.

The Queen Victoria Hospital treated septic abortions also, but its image was always was always more ladylike and respectable. The abortion victims were all assumed to be 'tarts' or unmarried girls who had been tragically seduced; but most were married women who could not afford either financially or personally to have another baby.

59. THE HUMAN RIGHT TO DECIDE FOR HERSELF  BETRAYAL

Maternity can only be fairly and effectively protected when a woman is left in full possession of her rights as an adult human being. Neither marriage, nor pregnancy, nor childbirth, nor nursing a child are reasons for depriving her of the human right to decide for herself.

Muriel Heagney papers, State Library of Victoria

60. 1935 THEY WORKED FOR EQUAL PAY

Muriel Heagney said the reason she wrote Are Women Taking Men's Jobs, 1935, was to respond to ‘the current propaganda against women in industry, implying that women and girls were taking men's jobs and thereby becoming a contributory factor in general unemployment'.

61. 1937 THEY FORMED THE COUNCIL OF ACTION FOR EQUAL PAY

It activated the union movement and was instrumental in organising the first International Conference on Equal Pay (1938). Delegates to the Council of Action for Equal Pay (CAEP) sponsored Conference on Women and Children in Industry in Wartime, in August 1940, expressed strong disapproval of the emphasis that the Commonwealth Government was placing "on the need for voluntary unpaid work of women and girls in war services of an industrial character, whilst, at the same time, all our legislative and judicial authorities are completely ignoring the new special problems inherent in the socially necessary paid work of women and youths."

Elizabeth Windschuttle (ed) Women, Class and History Feminist Perspectives on Australia 1788-1978 Fontana/Collins 1980

The objective of the Council was "advocacy of the rate for the job irrespective of the sex of the workers, the elimination of sex differentials in legal industrial standards, the achievement of equal status and equality of opportunity for workers of either sex".

Edna Ryan and Anne Conlon, The Gentle Invaders Australian Women at Work 1788-1974 Nelson 1975 p.122

62. TEACHERS’ CONDITIONS BETRAYAL

(For women) promotions were blocked; positions were withheld, status was lowered - their social standing as teachers was nil. At times it appeared to be a deliberate process of elimination of the woman teacher.

Peacock's response was that far from supporting the principle of equal pay, he declared that "the need for the male mind and spirit and personality is so vital and urgent that a wise administration will seek to increase rather than decrease the present inequality of pay".

The Department responded "the tenure of service of woman teachers is uncertain"; that women resign on account of marriage (catch-22 here - they had to) that women do not have the same family responsibilities as men and so equal pay would give them an "unequal standard of comfort".

A Biography of Doris McRae 1893-1988 PHD University of Melbourne

Mrs Mary Leigh applied in 1940 for a job as a wartime pilot. "When I wrote to the Ministry to enquire how women pilots would be used in the war, I was told we were being trained only to attract more boys to flying! That made me mad."

Vashti's Voice July '73

63. RECOGNISING THE SERVICE RENDERED TO THE COMMUNITY … AND THAT MEN SHARE THE HOUSEWORK

Muriel Heagney:
With over two decades experience in trade union agitation for improved living conditions for all workers to supplement personal experience, I am convinced that family life will never reach the ideal standard we desire until the economic value of the services of the woman in the home is recognised by a special allowance from the State ...

At the first ACTU Conference held in Melbourne in 1921 I moved a resolution which still summarizes my view on the matter. The resolution was seconded by Mr J M Badderly, representative of the Miners' Federation, and was carried unanimously. It reads:

"That this Congress endorses the principle of the endowment of motherhood and childhood, thereby recognising the service rendered to the community by the mother in the care and nurture of the child, such payment to be a charge on the whole community, and be recognised as an individual right, and not associated in any way with the economic circumstances of the husband or father."

The system of child endowment instituted by the Commonwealth Government is along these lines and if extended until the inherent right of every child to access the best social opportunities available combined with a special allowance for the mother were recognised, the community would benefit immeasurably.

You will observe that I have made no provision for the childless married woman. I do so advisedly. My plan for special allowances for women is based not on their sex but on the service rendered to the community in the upbringing of a family... The household chores could be shared by both husband and wife.

Muriel Heagney Notes, State Library of Victoria

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