A. EARLY DAYS - THE TIMES OF VIDA GOLDSTEIN

1.   overwork, economic deprivation and ill–health
2.   1880’s melbourne tailoresses strike
3.   and also …
4.   1885 the victorian lady teachers’ association
5.   1895 anti sweating leagues
6.   1895 “our opponents”  betrayal
7.   the public service act  betrayal


8.   1903 women in politics
9.   1904  victorian employers federation betrayal
10. 1907 the harvester decision  betrayal
11.1910-11 other pre-war actions
12. 1911 'the match girls' strikes
13. 1911 factories and shops acts  betrayal
14. 1912 justice (?) higgins  betrayal


15. 1912 equal pay for teachers betrayal
16. the women's political association supported the teachers
17. 1913 lady teachers’ association resolution
18. the clerks’ wages board determination 
20. 1914 teachers’ equal pay claim betrayal
21. 1914 war - 'the wicked waste of life'  betrayal


22. 1915 food prices up, unemployment, poverty
23. 1915 wpa (women’s political association) women's labour bureau
24. victorian association of benevolent societies betrayal
25. response from the women’s political ass.n
26. women’s labour bureau defunded  betrayal
27. 1915 agitating and lobbying - unemployed women
28. not only women


29. australian women’s national league (awnl) opposed the wpa betrayal
30. 1915 the women's rural co-operative
31. the international congress of women
32. prime minister's visit to london  betrayal
33. declining birthrate blamed on women  betrayal
34. 1915 cost of living demonstrations
35. 1915 unemployment and the women's labour councils
36. equal pay provision broken down betrayal


37. nursing in war
38. salaries cut  betrayal
39. the commonwealth clothing factory  betrayal
40. 1917 'we want work adjourn the house'
41. more anti feminist betrayal
42. peace has come betrayal


B. RECOVERING FROM WAR - THE TIMES OF MURIEL HEAGNEY


43. living standards falling
44. 1918 returned nurses' conditions betrayal
45. 1916-18 muriel (heagney) had got a job
46. 1919 the basic wage betrayal
47. a “where is the bachelor tax”? betrayal
48. 1925–6 women’s activism
49. shall not by sex or marriage


50. 1926 the clothing trade union claims
51. unemployment in the depression
52. 1930 the heagney-riley report on unemployed women
53. 1930 unemployed girls' relief movement
54. the communist party of australia  betrayal?
55. 1932 nationalist party  betrayal
56. miss heagney ceases work?  betrayal


57. social insecurity – wages cuts betrayal
58. 1930-1933 overwork, economic deprivation and ill-health again
59. the human right to decide for herself  betrayal
60. 1935 they worked for equal pay
61. 1937 they formed the council of action for equal pay (caep)
62. teachers’ conditions betrayal
63. recognising the service … and that men share the housework


64. wages for wives paid by husbands betrayal
65. 1941 muriel heagney's six point policy
66. 1941 women's cheap labour exploited 
67. 1941 1942 the australian women's land army (awla)
68. 1943 female rates betrayal
69. women's place in post-war reconstruction?
70. 1953 proposed wage reductions for women betrayal
71. equal pay rallies in 1955, and 1957
72. (premier?) bolte's response  betrayal
73. kath williams came out fighting


C. WOMEN’S LIBERATION – THE TIMES OF ZELDA D’APRANO

74. it all began – zelda d’aprano
75. 1968 equal basics wage case
76. 1969 equal pay case betrayal
77. the commonwealth government chain-up
78. police response
79. arbitration commission chain up
80. calling out slogans, waving banners
81. 1970 we earn 75%, we pay 75% the trams

82. what is women’s liberation?
83. woman is moving
84. background to equal pay demands
85. 1972 equal pay for work of equal value
86. 1972 childcare
87. 1956-75 women's struggle to become tram drivers in Melbourne
88. 1974 tramway women's struggle  betrayal
89. 1974 taking men's jobs? (again) minimum wage case


90. women who work in shops protest 91. women picket everhot
92. women’s action alliance et al betrayal 
93. “not wishing to help asio further …”
94. religion – catholic action - national civic council betrayal
95. women members of national civic council betrayal
96. 1974 waa “homemaker's allowance” betrayal
97. i am not a housewife
98. social welfare cuts betrayal
99. whose right to choose?
100. beyond equality


APPENDIX 1
1919 the zurich women’s international conference
APPENDIX 2 join the council for women in war work
APPENDIX 3 the 1946 australian women’s charter
APPENDIX 4
1978 waa women's report to national civic council melbourne
APPENDIX 5 the women’s liberation manifesto

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Page 8 B. RECOVERING FROM WAR, MORE WAR, MORE RECOVERING -
THE TIMES OF MURIEL HEAGNEY
50-56 on this page

50. 1926 THE CLOTHING TRADE UNION CLAIMS

Muriel Heagney:
The justification for women's claims in the 1926 Clothing Trades Union case for an equal minimum or basic wage was primarily a demand for the right to complete economic independence for women workers and a frank declaration that a woman's contribution to production is equally valuable to that of a man.

In 1926 she (Muriel Heagney) helped the Clothing Trades Union prepare evidence for their application for men and women to receive the same basic wage ... But such activities were soon overshadowed by the Depression of the late 1920's and 1930's.

The Changemakers
Suzanne Fabian and Morag Loh Jacarandah Press 1983

51. UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE DEPRESSION

The Labor Government White Paper on unemployment gives the official figures: On the average during the twenty years 1919 - 1939 more than one tenth of the men and women desiring work were unemployed. In the worst period of the depression over 25% were left in unproductive idleness.

The First 200 Years Helen Palmer and Jessie MacLeod, Longman Cheshire 1981 p 244

52. 1930 THE HEAGNEY-RILEY REPORT ON UNEMPLOYED WOMEN

The Heagney-Riley report of June 1930 presented a horrifying picture of the plight of unemployed women. Of the eighteen Melbourne municipalities visited, none gave 'sustenance' to women. For the growing numbers of unemployed women there was no financial relief or unemployment benefits as we know it ... it was reported that unemployed women received no assistance and that thousands were poverty-stricken, ill and suffering psychological stress.

Muriel Heagney and F J Riley from the Women's Trade Union Unemployment Committee set out to collect the hard evidence that might bring about a change for the better.

The Changemakers Suzanne Fabian Morag Loh Jacarandah Press 1983 p 120

Australia had the second highest unemployment rates in the Western world. Only Germany was higher.

Wendy Lowenstein, Weevils in the Flour, An oral record of the 1930's depression in Australia Scribe 1978

53. 1930 UNEMPLOYED GIRLS' RELIEF MOVEMENT

Muriel Heagney co-operated with Jessie Henderson, president of the (probably anti-feminist) Central Council of Victorian Benevolent Societies to achieve this: “Muriel Heagney was one of those who realised the plight of unemployed women and girls and a 'girls' Week" was organised in Melbourne in 1930 to raise funds for their assistance.

The Unemployed Girls' Relief Movement was able to carry on with funds collected for over two years. Centres were organised where girls could drop in, for company and sisterly support, for the opportunity to use a sewing machine and make up some clothing, or to attend education courses which were provided.

Edna Ryan and Alice Conlon Gentle Invaders Thomas Nelson 1975 p118

54. THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF AUSTRALIA BETRAYAL?

The Communist Party of Australia saw it as a twin evil - the work of a social fascist and a work of charity. The Girls' Relief Movement existed for two years while the Labor Government was in power and supplied work and other services for between 10,000 and 12,000 women.

Muriel Heagney urged "complete government financing and responsibility for all relief payments" and denied that the project was "charity or philanthropic work". While there may have been grounds of criticism of this project, particularly in respect to wages and conditions, Working Woman's (Communist Party of Australia publication) response seems more than a little extravagant.

It urged the "Working women of Melbourne" to realise that ... in demanding the right to live, the biggest enemies you have to fight against are Muriel Heagney and the rest of the Trades Hall social fascists, who with revolutionary phrases on their lips, aid the bosses to crush you. Let your slogan be: "Down with the social fascists, build up the Unemployed Workers Movement".

Joyce Stevens, Taking the Revolution Home Work Among Women in the Communist Party of Australia 1920-1945 Sybilla Press 1984

55. 1932 NATIONALIST PARTY
BETRAYAL

The Unemployed Girl's Relief Movement was stopped when the Nationalist Party was returned to Government in 1932.

Yvonne Smith, Taking Time A Women's Historical Data Kit

56. 'MISS HEAGNEY CEASES WORK'? BETRAYAL

The headline was 'Miss Heagney Ceases Work', but she didn't just cease work: 'Miss Heagney Ceases Work - Relief Organiser - Miss Muriel Heagney, who has been in charge of the workless girls' relief scheme since its inception two and a half years ago has received notice of termination of her appointment from the Minister in charge of Sustenance (Mr Kent Hughes) and from the Central Council of Benevolent Societies.

The decision is likely to cause a stir in relief circles. Miss Heagney was the organiser of the suburban work centres, at which homeless girls work two days and workless girls work one day for 12/6 and 7/7 a week respectively - at the peak period she had (2,800?) girls under her charge and it is estimated that she handles 10,000 cases.

Minister's Letter - In letters to Miss Heagney, and to the Central Board, the Minister has explained the reasons for the step as follows:

"With the absorption of girls into domestic service after training at the domestic art school, it is anticipated that the number of girls employed at the centres will be reduced to between 500 and 600. Under these circumstances, the services of a superintendent will not be required.

Mr Kent Hughes sent the following explanation to Miss Heagney on Dec 5: "The reason for notifying you of the decision at this stage was in order to give you as long notice as possible. I thought that this was only fair in view of the excellent services that you have rendered to the Government during the past three years...

On behalf of the Government I desire to thank you most sincerely for the work that you have done, and I hope that your organising ability will enable you to obtain employment in another sphere. Miss Heagney will be given 4 weeks holiday on full pay from Jan 3, after which her engagement will end. The administrative work will be carried out by the Central Committee in future. Miss Heagney's office staff will probably be retained."

Herald 12 December 1932

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