A. EARLY DAYS - THE TIMES OF VIDA GOLDSTEIN

1.   overwork, economic deprivation and ill–health
2.   1880’s melbourne tailoresses strike
3.   and also …
4.   1885 the victorian lady teachers’ association
5.   1895 anti sweating leagues
6.   1895 “our opponents”  betrayal
7.   the public service act  betrayal


8.   1903 women in politics
9.   1904  victorian employers federation betrayal
10. 1907 the harvester decision  betrayal
11.1910-11 other pre-war actions
12. 1911 'the match girls' strikes
13. 1911 factories and shops acts  betrayal
14. 1912 justice (?) higgins  betrayal


15. 1912 equal pay for teachers betrayal
16. the women's political association supported the teachers
17. 1913 lady teachers’ association resolution
18. the clerks’ wages board determination 
20. 1914 teachers’ equal pay claim betrayal
21. 1914 war - 'the wicked waste of life'  betrayal


22. 1915 food prices up, unemployment, poverty
23. 1915 wpa (women’s political association) women's labour bureau
24. victorian association of benevolent societies betrayal
25. response from the women’s political ass.n
26. women’s labour bureau defunded  betrayal
27. 1915 agitating and lobbying - unemployed women
28. not only women


29. australian women’s national league (awnl) opposed the wpa betrayal
30. 1915 the women's rural co-operative
31. the international congress of women
32. prime minister's visit to london  betrayal
33. declining birthrate blamed on women  betrayal
34. 1915 cost of living demonstrations
35. 1915 unemployment and the women's labour councils
36. equal pay provision broken down betrayal


37. nursing in war
38. salaries cut  betrayal
39. the commonwealth clothing factory  betrayal
40. 1917 'we want work adjourn the house'
41. more anti feminist betrayal
42. peace has come betrayal


B. RECOVERING FROM WAR - THE TIMES OF MURIEL HEAGNEY


43. living standards falling
44. 1918 returned nurses' conditions betrayal
45. 1916-18 muriel (heagney) had got a job
46. 1919 the basic wage betrayal
47. a “where is the bachelor tax”? betrayal
48. 1925–6 women’s activism
49. shall not by sex or marriage


50. 1926 the clothing trade union claims
51. unemployment in the depression
52. 1930 the heagney-riley report on unemployed women
53. 1930 unemployed girls' relief movement
54. the communist party of australia  betrayal?
55. 1932 nationalist party  betrayal
56. miss heagney ceases work?  betrayal


57. social insecurity – wages cuts betrayal
58. 1930-1933 overwork, economic deprivation and ill-health again
59. the human right to decide for herself  betrayal
60. 1935 they worked for equal pay
61. 1937 they formed the council of action for equal pay (caep)
62. teachers’ conditions betrayal
63. recognising the service … and that men share the housework


64. wages for wives paid by husbands betrayal
65. 1941 muriel heagney's six point policy
66. 1941 women's cheap labour exploited 
67. 1941 1942 the australian women's land army (awla)
68. 1943 female rates betrayal
69. women's place in post-war reconstruction?
70. 1953 proposed wage reductions for women betrayal
71. equal pay rallies in 1955, and 1957
72. (premier?) bolte's response  betrayal
73. kath williams came out fighting


C. WOMEN’S LIBERATION – THE TIMES OF ZELDA D’APRANO

74. it all began – zelda d’aprano
75. 1968 equal basics wage case
76. 1969 equal pay case betrayal
77. the commonwealth government chain-up
78. police response
79. arbitration commission chain up
80. calling out slogans, waving banners
81. 1970 we earn 75%, we pay 75% the trams

82. what is women’s liberation?
83. woman is moving
84. background to equal pay demands
85. 1972 equal pay for work of equal value
86. 1972 childcare
87. 1956-75 women's struggle to become tram drivers in Melbourne
88. 1974 tramway women's struggle  betrayal
89. 1974 taking men's jobs? (again) minimum wage case


90. women who work in shops protest 91. women picket everhot
92. women’s action alliance et al betrayal 
93. “not wishing to help asio further …”
94. religion – catholic action - national civic council betrayal
95. women members of national civic council betrayal
96. 1974 waa “homemaker's allowance” betrayal
97. i am not a housewife
98. social welfare cuts betrayal
99. whose right to choose?
100. beyond equality


APPENDIX 1
1919 the zurich women’s international conference
APPENDIX 2 join the council for women in war work
APPENDIX 3 the 1946 australian women’s charter
APPENDIX 4
1978 waa women's report to national civic council melbourne
APPENDIX 5 the women’s liberation manifesto

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Page 7 B. RECOVERING FROM WAR, MORE WAR, MORE RECOVERING -
THE TIMES OF MURIEL HEAGNEY
43-49 on this page


B. RECOVERING FROM WAR, MORE WAR, MORE RECOVERING –
THE TIMES OF MURIEL HEAGNEY

The causes of war are primarily economic.
and
Those who control the economic system react the same way to all threats to their sovereignty ...

Muriel Heagney: State Library of Victoria

43. LIVING STANDARDS FALLING

The percentage of women in the paid workforce and the percentage of married women in the paid workforce dropped well below what it had been at the start of the century.
The number of social justice measures such as those that had been brought in after women won the vote, stopped, except for schemes to alleviate conditions for returned soldiers - and these were too few and too little.

After the war, in 1918, there was massive industrial unrest - strikes and disputes - because living standards were falling.

The basic wage ... was below the 1907 equivalent, average wages were low and many people were unemployed.
Suzane Fabian and Morag Loh The Changemakers Jacarandah Press 1983 p.117


44. 1918 RETURNED NURSES' CONDITIONS
BETRAYAL

When the armistice was signed, Sister Stilton was working at No 11 AGH at Coalfield. She had arrived back in Melbourne on transport duty in May 1918. "We came home tired and weary; the world seemed completely changed; our thoughts were with our losses, the beastliness, the destruction, the waste; the agonies and endurance", she wrote.....

Their medals (on ANZAC day) tell the story of heroism and devotion by nurses", runs a typical headline. The reality was very different. After returning to Australia, a large number of returned nurses found their hopes and dreams turned to fears and nightmares. The records of some of the funds established to assist former army nurses paint a grim picture of widespread hardship, often caused or exacerbated by wartime experiences ...

Sister Gladys Sumner had nursed in India, Egypt, Salon, and England during the War, had contracted malaria and pneumonia while overseas, and had been demobilized in January 1920. She had attempted to resume nursing after the War, but was forced to keep stopping because of frequent attacks of malaria, some of which resulted in hospitalization ...

During the Depression her situation became desperate. In July 1934 she wrote: "I am really worried, as I have no money at all - only 10/-. I live in a room - as I have no home - and have paid for that till the 23rd without meals.

I have tried every source for work - am trying every day ... I have tried to hang on and not ask for a grant ... but I have had only nine weeks work out of seven months - since last December - at very poor pay."
Jan Bassett Guns and Brooches, Australian Army Nursing from the Boer War to the Gulf War Oxford 1992 p.95

45. 1916-18 MURIEL (HEAGNEY) HAD GOT A JOB

In 1916 Muriel (Heagney) had got a job as a clerk at the Defence Department in Melbourne and for three and a half years worked closely with returned soldiers. She was moved by stories of personal tragedy that were never recorded in official war histories. She became an anti-war activist.

She spoke publicly in the anti-conscription campaigns of 1916 and 1917 and, with her mother, joined street demonstrations against the war ...

The Intelligence section of the Defence Department reported her subversive activities to her superiors in order to have them stopped, but Muriel insisted on her rights as a citizen to engage in political activities. She refused to be intimidated and, despite Defence Department disapproval, continued her political activism throughout the war ...

Muriel was paid the full male rate of the Defence Department. Because women hadn't worked there before, the regulations made no allowance for a lower rate of pay for women. She kept this precedent before her in her life-long struggle to have wages determined by the rate for the job, not the sex of the worker.
The Changemakers Suzanne Fabian and Morag Loh Jacarandah Press 1983 pp.116-117


The right to work is no prerogative of men ... Women's right to work rests not on her dependents, nor on the fact that she does or does not compete with men, but in the absolute right of a free human being, a taxpayer and a voter, to economic independence.
Muriel Heagney papers, State Library of Victoria

46. 1919 THE BASIC WAGE BETRAYAL

In 1919 Muriel began work as an investigator for a Royal Commission set up to inquire into whether the basic wage was enough for a family to live on ... the judge (Justice Higgins) had read an article by Vida Goldstein which listed budgets of desperately poor families, but no thorough official investigation of Australian conditions had been made...

As an investigator for this important Royal Commission, Muriel travelled to six capital cities and to Newcastle gathering evidence on living standards and the cost of living.  She took into account such basics as food, rent and clothing, but also included the cost of fuel, haircuts, newspapers, fares and schooling, which had never before been considered (as Vida Goldstein had noticed) in wage fixing.

The evidence was comprehensive and conclusive. Muriel found that the basic wage did not provide adequately for a family and that living standards had indeed fallen ... The Commission recommended an immediate increase. Furthermore, it recommended that the basic wage should be given to a husband and wife and that the children's needs be met by child endowment.

Both the Federal Arbitration Court and the government rejected the Commission's findings. Justice Higgins of the Arbitration Court made it clear that the basic wage was not to be a proper wage guaranteeing adequate diet, clothing, shelter and education. It was to cover only the bare needs of “the humblest class of worker.”
Suzane Fabian and Morag LohThe Changemaker
s Jacarandah Press 1983 p.118

BETRAYAL

Henry Higgins:
A differentiation between men's wages and women's wages in most tailoring work has been conceded ... Is it right that this court should aid the gentle invaders?
Clothing Trades Dispute
1919 Henry Bournes Higgins, MA, Llb President of the Court of Conciliation and Arbitration, 1907-1921 from The Gentle Invaders

47. “WHERE IS THE BACHELOR TAX”?

1921-2 Melvina Ingram of the Victorian State Schools Teachers Union argued in a deputation to Minister Alexander Peacock that if the argument that women will not marry if they receive a salary equal to that of a man is to be accepted, then: "We must look on the Education Department as a matrimonial bureau, forcing its women into matrimony by giving less than the men and penalising the remainder who do not marry by exhorting a fee - the difference between a man's and woman's salary.

She presented it as a "spinster tax" and asked the Minister "where is the bachelor tax, though".
Cheryl Griffin Women’s Liberation archives University of Melbourne

48. 1925–6 WOMEN’S ACTIVISM

Inspired by Alice Henry's visit, working women in Melbourne formed a Women's Trade Union League modelled on the organisation for which Henry worked in the United States. Delegates from thirteen unions attended a meeting in July 1925, which adopted a platform aimed at increasing women's participation in their individual unions and on public tribunals. They also resolved to obtain for girls and women equal opportunities with boys and men in trades and technical training, and pay on the basis of occupation and not on the basis of sex.
Jean Daley quoted in The History of Australian Feminism Marilyn Lake Allen & Unwin 1999

49. SHALL NOT BY SEX OR MARRIAGE

In 1926 the Victorian Women's Qualification Act removed disqualification of women to take up (some) judicial offices and in 1928 further provided that they “shall not by sex or marriage be disqualified from any profession or society”. 700 employees at Yarra Falls Spinning Mills, 500 of them female, went on strike ...

With 3,500 out in Melbourne there were too many to meet in Trades Hall, so the strikers went to the Temperance Hall, the girls marching along Russell St singing!  
Rebel Women in Australia, working class history ed Sandra Bloodworth and Tom O'Lincoln Interventions Melbourne 1998

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