A. EARLY DAYS - THE TIMES OF VIDA GOLDSTEIN

1.   overwork, economic deprivation and ill–health
2.   1880’s melbourne tailoresses strike
3.   and also …
4.   1885 the victorian lady teachers’ association
5.   1895 anti sweating leagues
6.   1895 “our opponents”  betrayal
7.   the public service act  betrayal


8.   1903 women in politics
9.   1904  victorian employers federation betrayal
10. 1907 the harvester decision  betrayal
11.1910-11 other pre-war actions
12. 1911 'the match girls' strikes
13. 1911 factories and shops acts  betrayal
14. 1912 justice (?) higgins  betrayal


15. 1912 equal pay for teachers betrayal
16. the women's political association supported the teachers
17. 1913 lady teachers’ association resolution
18. the clerks’ wages board determination 
20. 1914 teachers’ equal pay claim betrayal
21. 1914 war - 'the wicked waste of life'  betrayal


22. 1915 food prices up, unemployment, poverty
23. 1915 wpa (women’s political association) women's labour bureau
24. victorian association of benevolent societies betrayal
25. response from the women’s political ass.n
26. women’s labour bureau defunded  betrayal
27. 1915 agitating and lobbying - unemployed women
28. not only women


29. australian women’s national league (awnl) opposed the wpa betrayal
30. 1915 the women's rural co-operative
31. the international congress of women
32. prime minister's visit to london  betrayal
33. declining birthrate blamed on women  betrayal
34. 1915 cost of living demonstrations
35. 1915 unemployment and the women's labour councils
36. equal pay provision broken down betrayal


37. nursing in war
38. salaries cut  betrayal
39. the commonwealth clothing factory  betrayal
40. 1917 'we want work adjourn the house'
41. more anti feminist betrayal
42. peace has come betrayal


B. RECOVERING FROM WAR - THE TIMES OF MURIEL HEAGNEY


43. living standards falling
44. 1918 returned nurses' conditions betrayal
45. 1916-18 muriel (heagney) had got a job
46. 1919 the basic wage betrayal
47. a “where is the bachelor tax”? betrayal
48. 1925–6 women’s activism
49. shall not by sex or marriage


50. 1926 the clothing trade union claims
51. unemployment in the depression
52. 1930 the heagney-riley report on unemployed women
53. 1930 unemployed girls' relief movement
54. the communist party of australia  betrayal?
55. 1932 nationalist party  betrayal
56. miss heagney ceases work?  betrayal


57. social insecurity – wages cuts betrayal
58. 1930-1933 overwork, economic deprivation and ill-health again
59. the human right to decide for herself  betrayal
60. 1935 they worked for equal pay
61. 1937 they formed the council of action for equal pay (caep)
62. teachers’ conditions betrayal
63. recognising the service … and that men share the housework


64. wages for wives paid by husbands betrayal
65. 1941 muriel heagney's six point policy
66. 1941 women's cheap labour exploited 
67. 1941 1942 the australian women's land army (awla)
68. 1943 female rates betrayal
69. women's place in post-war reconstruction?
70. 1953 proposed wage reductions for women betrayal
71. equal pay rallies in 1955, and 1957
72. (premier?) bolte's response  betrayal
73. kath williams came out fighting


C. WOMEN’S LIBERATION – THE TIMES OF ZELDA D’APRANO

74. it all began – zelda d’aprano
75. 1968 equal basics wage case
76. 1969 equal pay case betrayal
77. the commonwealth government chain-up
78. police response
79. arbitration commission chain up
80. calling out slogans, waving banners
81. 1970 we earn 75%, we pay 75% the trams

82. what is women’s liberation?
83. woman is moving
84. background to equal pay demands
85. 1972 equal pay for work of equal value
86. 1972 childcare
87. 1956-75 women's struggle to become tram drivers in Melbourne
88. 1974 tramway women's struggle  betrayal
89. 1974 taking men's jobs? (again) minimum wage case


90. women who work in shops protest 91. women picket everhot
92. women’s action alliance et al betrayal 
93. “not wishing to help asio further …”
94. religion – catholic action - national civic council betrayal
95. women members of national civic council betrayal
96. 1974 waa “homemaker's allowance” betrayal
97. i am not a housewife
98. social welfare cuts betrayal
99. whose right to choose?
100. beyond equality


APPENDIX 1
1919 the zurich women’s international conference
APPENDIX 2 join the council for women in war work
APPENDIX 3 the 1946 australian women’s charter
APPENDIX 4
1978 waa women's report to national civic council melbourne
APPENDIX 5 the women’s liberation manifesto

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37. NURSING IN WAR

In World War 1, 2,030 Australian nurses served abroad (with reinforcements bringing the number up to 3,000) in Egypt, Palestine, the Persian Gulf, England, France, Italy, Burma, India, Vladivostok, Abyssinia, and on hospital ships and transports.

“Everything here is unutterably sad and awful; thousands coming in day and night. We are in the theatre from 7am till 8pm then work in the chapel attending to the new admissions till any hour in the morning.”

Patsy Adam-Smith Australian Women at War Penguin 1984 p.51

38. SALARIES CUT  BETRAYAL

Salaries of Commonwealth Army nurses were cut during the war and when protest was made they were told “If women wanted frills and furbelows” they must provide for them.

Nurses responded by protesting “It is necessary for the Commonwealth to economize on its war cost, but it is not clear to women why nurses have been singled out ... The salaries of young unmarried medical officers have not been cut down, neither has it been suggested they spend their salaries frivolously.”

Mrs Angela James Booth, The Payment of Women's Work cited in For Love or Money a pictorial history of women and work in Australia Penguin 1981

39. THE COMMONWEALTH CLOTHING FACTORY  BETRAYAL

Jan Bassett:
For many people, especially women, the war years were ones of financial hardship. Real wages fell. Almost all the employees of the Commonwealth Clothing Factory were women and girls, and their wages were much lower than those of men and boys in comparable jobs.

The Commonwealth Employment Factory opened in 1911, its purpose being to provide clothing and uniforms for federal departments. During World War 1 it made uniforms for Australian troops. For the first few weeks of the war its employees worked from 8am to 10pm ... then from 8am to 5.30pm ... Later in the war employees worked on Saturday morning as well ...

A study of employment figures of this and other war-related factories supports the argument that women provided a reserve labour force that was exploited in times of necessity, such as war, and abandoned in others.

Double Time ed Marilyn Lake Farley Kelly Penguin 1985 p.269

Women's already low wages became even more impossible to live on as war-time price rises introduced Australians to the joys of inflation for the first time.

In Melbourne, Adela Pankhurst, Jeannie Baines, Alice Suter and other Socialist women demonstrated to protest the rising prices; the three were arrested and sentenced to nine months imprisonment for their pains, though they later appealed their sentences and won.

Suzanne Fabian and Morag Loh The Changemakers Jacarandah Press 1983 p.66

40. 1917 'WE WANT WORK ADJOURN THE HOUSE'


The Argus 3 August 1917 p.8:
Raid on Parliament by Unemployed Women – Extraordinary scenes were witnessed at Federal Parliament House yesterday, when a number of women, headed by Miss Adela Pankhurst, attempted to storm the House and demand work ... about one hundred women rushed into the House shouting “We want work. Adjourn the House”.  

Police cleared them out. It is understood that a number of the women present had been dismissed from the ammunition works recently.

Double Time Women in Victoria - 150 years Marilyn Lake Farley Kelly Penguin 1985 p.270

41. MORE ANTI FEMINIST BETRAYAL

Judith Smart:
The Australian Women’s National League (AWNL) annual conference resolved that the "ringleader", Adela Pankhurst, should be deported along with all who had sympathised with her and helped bring the streets of the city "under mob rule". 

Double Time Women in Victoria - 150 years 1985 Marilyn Lake Farley Kelly Penguin 1985 p.270 p.186

Women and the Law: Admission to the Bar Refused - The Bar Council has defeated by an overwhelming majority a resolution proposing the admission of women to practice at the Bar. The Attorney General (Sir F E Smith) and others argued that it was unfair to consider the question while 1,800 barristers were on active service.

Argus Jan 20 1917

In 1918 separate wage claims for female and male telephonists were presented for the first time, and the Government decided to refuse women any entry into the clerical division at all. The problem was to be solved in the fashion long since discovered in industry: the increasing differentiation of jobs into male and female, with different rates of pay.

For Love or Money a pictorial history of women and work in Australia Penguin 1981

42. PEACE HAS COME BETRAYAL

Reflections - Peace has come. Let those who can still deceive themselves celebrate it. It is unspeakable, what there is of it.

We have saved the world from the Germans. Heaven send something to save the world from us. A wonderful people we are ... was there ever our like before? We consign to starvation a million people - women, little children and old men - firmly refusing to end our war with them, even when the war with their men has ceased.

Meanwhile our parsons bang their pulpit cushions and rant against "those nations that make war on women and children".  

We bomb defenceless towns from the air, while our press is still yelling for the blood of those who transgressed international law and our gentle women and brave men bear these unnameable things with an equanimity in which can be detected not one quiver of protest.

Woman Voter July 3 1919 see Appendix 1

Our work is here, and we have to pursue it. Whatever will strengthen the labour movement, or the woman movement, goes to strengthen the world forces of peace. Let us hold fast to that.

Alice Henry

In 1919 the female rate was set at 54% of the male rate
Women at Work - Kaye Hargreaves Penguin 1982 p.16

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