A. EARLY DAYS - THE TIMES OF VIDA GOLDSTEIN

1.   overwork, economic deprivation and ill–health
2.   1880’s melbourne tailoresses strike
3.   and also …
4.   1885 the victorian lady teachers’ association
5.   1895 anti sweating leagues
6.   1895 “our opponents”  betrayal
7.   the public service act  betrayal


8.   1903 women in politics
9.   1904  victorian employers federation betrayal
10. 1907 the harvester decision  betrayal
11.1910-11 other pre-war actions
12. 1911 'the match girls' strikes
13. 1911 factories and shops acts  betrayal
14. 1912 justice (?) higgins  betrayal


15. 1912 equal pay for teachers betrayal
16. the women's political association supported the teachers
17. 1913 lady teachers’ association resolution
18. the clerks’ wages board determination 
20. 1914 teachers’ equal pay claim betrayal
21. 1914 war - 'the wicked waste of life'  betrayal


22. 1915 food prices up, unemployment, poverty
23. 1915 wpa (women’s political association) women's labour bureau
24. victorian association of benevolent societies betrayal
25. response from the women’s political ass.n
26. women’s labour bureau defunded  betrayal
27. 1915 agitating and lobbying - unemployed women
28. not only women


29. australian women’s national league (awnl) opposed the wpa betrayal
30. 1915 the women's rural co-operative
31. the international congress of women
32. prime minister's visit to london  betrayal
33. declining birthrate blamed on women  betrayal
34. 1915 cost of living demonstrations
35. 1915 unemployment and the women's labour councils
36. equal pay provision broken down betrayal


37. nursing in war
38. salaries cut  betrayal
39. the commonwealth clothing factory  betrayal
40. 1917 'we want work adjourn the house'
41. more anti feminist betrayal
42. peace has come betrayal


B. RECOVERING FROM WAR - THE TIMES OF MURIEL HEAGNEY


43. living standards falling
44. 1918 returned nurses' conditions betrayal
45. 1916-18 muriel (heagney) had got a job
46. 1919 the basic wage betrayal
47. a “where is the bachelor tax”? betrayal
48. 1925–6 women’s activism
49. shall not by sex or marriage


50. 1926 the clothing trade union claims
51. unemployment in the depression
52. 1930 the heagney-riley report on unemployed women
53. 1930 unemployed girls' relief movement
54. the communist party of australia  betrayal?
55. 1932 nationalist party  betrayal
56. miss heagney ceases work?  betrayal


57. social insecurity – wages cuts betrayal
58. 1930-1933 overwork, economic deprivation and ill-health again
59. the human right to decide for herself  betrayal
60. 1935 they worked for equal pay
61. 1937 they formed the council of action for equal pay (caep)
62. teachers’ conditions betrayal
63. recognising the service … and that men share the housework


64. wages for wives paid by husbands betrayal
65. 1941 muriel heagney's six point policy
66. 1941 women's cheap labour exploited 
67. 1941 1942 the australian women's land army (awla)
68. 1943 female rates betrayal
69. women's place in post-war reconstruction?
70. 1953 proposed wage reductions for women betrayal
71. equal pay rallies in 1955, and 1957
72. (premier?) bolte's response  betrayal
73. kath williams came out fighting


C. WOMEN’S LIBERATION – THE TIMES OF ZELDA D’APRANO

74. it all began – zelda d’aprano
75. 1968 equal basics wage case
76. 1969 equal pay case betrayal
77. the commonwealth government chain-up
78. police response
79. arbitration commission chain up
80. calling out slogans, waving banners
81. 1970 we earn 75%, we pay 75% the trams

82. what is women’s liberation?
83. woman is moving
84. background to equal pay demands
85. 1972 equal pay for work of equal value
86. 1972 childcare
87. 1956-75 women's struggle to become tram drivers in Melbourne
88. 1974 tramway women's struggle  betrayal
89. 1974 taking men's jobs? (again) minimum wage case


90. women who work in shops protest 91. women picket everhot
92. women’s action alliance et al betrayal 
93. “not wishing to help asio further …”
94. religion – catholic action - national civic council betrayal
95. women members of national civic council betrayal
96. 1974 waa “homemaker's allowance” betrayal
97. i am not a housewife
98. social welfare cuts betrayal
99. whose right to choose?
100. beyond equality


APPENDIX 1
1919 the zurich women’s international conference
APPENDIX 2 join the council for women in war work
APPENDIX 3 the 1946 australian women’s charter
APPENDIX 4
1978 waa women's report to national civic council melbourne
APPENDIX 5 the women’s liberation manifesto

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Page 5 A. EARLY DAYS - THE TIMES OF VIDA GOLDSTEIN
29-36 on this page

29. AUSTRALIAN WOMEN’S NATIONAL LEAGUE (AWNL) BETRAYAL

Initially the Women's Rural Co-operative received Government help, but they were vigorously opposed by the media and conservative (sic) women's organisations (see heading above).*
Taking Time Women's Time
http://home.vicnet.net.au/~wmnstime

30. 1915 THE WOMEN'S RURAL CO-OPERATIVE

Out of the work undertaken by the Women's Political Association there has developed a movement to place some of the women on the land ...
Woman Voter 9 March 1915


A farm of 14 acres has been taken at Mordialloc ... already some thousands of bulbs have been planted; a well is being sunk and a windmill erected ... Six young women will be in training under the capable direction of Cecilia John and Ina Higgins. The former is a poultry expert, and besides, 'as good as a man' she can drive a car, paint a house, erect poultry sheds ... Miss Higgins is a trained and certified flower and fruit expert ... the trainees have no fees to pay; they give their work, receive a home ...
Woman Voter 13 April 1915

Yvonne Smith: Involved in the establishment of a Women's Farm, the Women's Rural Industries Co. at Mordialloc was formed to help train unemployed women.
Taking Time Women's Time http://home.vicnet.net.au/~wmnstime

31. THE INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF WOMEN


On April 28, 1915, for the first time in history, women of different nations met together at a time of war to express their opposition and consider ways of ending the conflict.

The International Congress of Women which gathered at The Hague in Holland in this ninth month of the First World War included delegations from North Europe and America, from enemy no less than from neutral countries.

The Hague Congress was the offspring of the International Suffrage Alliance, an already established organisation with a strong pacifist bias in its leadership ... Some of the most enthusiastic supporters were the German suffrgists ... (But) some were stopped at the German border ... No French or Russian woman was able to attend ... passports were refused to all but 25 British women, the North Sea was closed to all shipping and they could not sail. Three British women, however, succeeded ...

To a certain section of the world's press and public opinion, the aims of the Congress seemed either laughable or deplorable. The women had been called foolish and naive; interfering and ill-informed; irresponsibly feminine and at the same time boldly unwomanly. The quality of the delegations soon gave the lie to these smear campaigns ...

The delegates from Germany to the Hague Congress faced a barrage of insults and hostile criticism on returning to their own country; some were also temporarily imprisoned ... It was impossible openly to organize a women's peace movement. Nevertheless, some of the most intensive and courageous post-Congress activity was carried out in Germany, and 29 groups were successfully established in different parts of the country.
Gertrude Bussey, Margaret Tims Women's International League of Peace and Freedom 1915-1965 Allen & Unwin 1965

In spite of difficulties and wartime travel, 1,136 women representing over 150 organisations from twelve countries did meet ... Twenty resolutions were passed under six headings: Women at War; Action towards Peace; Principles of Permanent Peace; International Co-operation; Education of Children; Action to be taken.
Adela Pankhurst Walsh Put Up the Sword

32. PRIME MINISTER'S VISIT TO LONDON BETRAYAL


Prime Minister's Visit to London - We enter our strong protest against Mr Hughes' secret mission to London.

To carry a mandate from the people should be the only reason for such a visit, and the Women's Political Union will sent its mandate by the Prime Minister - the women's terms of peace, the appointment of women to the conference that draws up the terms of peace, and our invincible opposition to conscription. Woman VoterNov 18 1915

Asiatic Deprived of Work:-
An Indian, Siva Singh, has been struck off the voters roll for (being?) Indii He appealed, but the magistrate dismissed the application with two guineas costs against Singh. If Indians are our "brothers" when it comes to a question of helping us kill our "enemies", they must also be regarded as our brothers in Australian citizenship.
Woman Voter September 23 1915

33. DECLINING BIRTHRATE BLAMED ON WOMEN BETRAYAL

(Vida Goldstein) responded indignantly to the Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne, Dr Daniel Mannix, who had criticised women for the declining birthrate. Although she had been addressing the issue since 1901, the war heightened her passionate defence of women's right to choose not to have children.
Janette M Bomford That Dangerous and Persuasive Woman University Press 1993 p.166

34. 1915 COST OF LIVING DEMONSTRATIONS

Judith Smart: There was plenty of evidence of a general decline in standards among the people and near starvation in the case of significant few. Since the outbreak of war retail prices of food and groceries in Melbourne had risen 28.2% to June 1917 ...

Emily Pankhurst: While men were dying like flies in Europe for Australia, their children, their wives and their old parents were being robbed by those who preferred that mice should eat good food rather than hungry humans should have it.
Gender at Work: Australian Women at War in the Twentieth Century Joy Damousi and Marilyn Lake CUP 1995 p.280

The Woman Voter 3 June 1915: "Dear Sir, we are here because we want work, not charity. My father wouldn't let me learn a trade or go in for any profession, because, he said, the home is the women's place, but I lost my home because the landlord doubled the rent ... For those of us who have no other source of income, two days work is not enough ... "
For Love or Money a pictorial history of women and work in Australia Penguin 1981 p.70

"Parliamentary Rebuff - Women Annoyed –
A demonstration in force at the State Parliament House of members of the Women's Political Association was contemplated yesterday with respect to the high cost of living.

About forty women arrived in the Exhibition Gardens shortly before half past 4 o'clock, in the expectation of meeting the Premier (Sir Alexander Peacock), and other members of the Legislative Assembly at the usual time of the adjournment on Thursdays. But the House rose earlier than as its custom, and, excepting for a few Labor members, there was no-one to receive the deputation.

The women were greatly annoyed at their chilly reception ... They were there to inform the Members of the great rise that has occurred in the price of foodstuffs and it was requested that the members should do what they could to relieve the situation, which was bearing hardly on the poorer sections of the community."
Argus
July 2 1915

35. 1915 UNEMPLOYMENT AND THE WOMEN'S LABOUR COUNCILS

Women's Labour Councils - Biennial Convention Opened - Domestic Subjects Discussed – A convention of women, representing the various Political Labour Councils, the State electorates and affiliated industrial unions ... was opened at Trades Hall yesterday. Forty delegates were present from different portions of the State. Miss Muriel Heagney was elected President and Mesdames Savage and Bella Lavender, Vice President.
The Argus September 23 1915 p.9

36. EQUAL PAY PROVISION BROKEN DOWN BETRAYAL

One area of employment women did enter in increasing numbers was office work. They became clerks, secretaries, 'type-writers' bookkeepers and accountants, frequently filling places left by enlisted men. Women had already worked in office jobs before the war, so their presence in offices was apparently not regarded as a problem. There was, however, the question of their rates of pay…

In 1916 the equal pay provision won in 1902 through the work of Louisa Dunkley, Vida Goldstein and others, was broken down. In an Arbitration Court ruling that was apparently unexpected by either the employer or the union, Judge Powers decided to set lower rates of pay for women in the clerical division of the Commonwealth Public Service.
For Love or Money a pictorial history of women and work in Australia Penguin 1981 p.66


*I divide women’s groups into radical, conservative and reactionary. The AWNL is reactionary by this definition.

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